What Is Test Case? How To Write Test Cases In Software Testing?

In this guide, we'll cover various aspects related to test cases. Let's dive in and explore the different aspects of test cases with examples.
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Software testing is vital in ensuring that software meets the desired quality standards. A well-designed test case serves as a roadmap for executing tests, helping to identify defects and ensure that the software functions as intended. It helps reduce the risk of issues slipping through the cracks and reaching end-users.In this guide, we’ll cover various aspects related to test cases. Let’s dive in and explore the different aspects of test cases with examples.

In this guide, let’s talk about the ins and outs of test cases, types, and best practices that will empower you to create high-quality and efficient test cases.

What is a Test Case?

A test case is a set of actions that verify whether the software application is working per the client’s requirements.

It outlines the steps to follow, the input values to use, and the expected outcomes in order to determine whether the application behaves correctly under various conditions.

Software testers are responsible for creating test cases during the software testing phase. And it consists of parameters like, test case ID, test data, description, test steps, expected result, actual result, status, and comments.

Read here – Test Condition

Test Cases for Manual Testing or Automated Testing?

Test cases are created for manual and automated testing. The way test cases are created may vary depending on the testing type, that is, manual or automated.

Manual Test Case Creation

  • Test cases are created manually by testers.
  • Everything is manual, from test execution and test case management to report generation.

Automated Test Case Creation

  • Its created using test automation tools without manual intervention.
  • They are written using any scripting language like Java, C#, Javascript, Ruby, PHP, C++, and more. Example of tools supporting such test case creation are, Selenium, and Appium.
  • You can also create test cases using Natural Language Processing, as few automation platforms support codeless testing. For example, Testsigma and Katalon.
  • Alternatively, testers can create test cases using the record-and-play feature supported by automation test platforms. For example, Testsigma and Selenium IDE.
  • Easily automate test execution, report generation, and more.
  • It is fast and saves time and effort.

Examples for both are discussed in the next sections.

Testsigma – Create Automated Tests in Minutes

Testsigma is a powerful low-code cloud-based test automation platform that lets you automate mobile, web, and desktop apps and APIs in one place. Testsigma supports NLP-based testing, which means you can automate complex workflows and create test cases as plain English statements. It makes testing 5x faster.

Testsigma - Test Case Creation

Alternatively, you can use the Record Element feature to record user interactions and run them later as automated tests on the cloud. It is as simple as that. Testsigma also supports Java for code-based testing.

You can perform various testing types in the same place. Check out the supported testing types below,


Automate your test cases for web, mobile, APIs and desktop applications, 5x faster, with TestsigmaLet’s talk more about how to create test cases in Testsigma in the below sections.

Read about Test Cases for Mobile Applications.

The Objective of Writing Test Cases

The objective of writing test cases is to ensure that software functions correctly and meets the specified requirements. Some of the key objectives of writing test cases,

  • To verify the specific feature or functionality of the software application.
  • To guide software testers in their day-to-day testing activities.
  • To identify usability issues and design gaps in the software at an early stage.
  • To record a catalog of steps for future reference in case of bugs.
  • To provide a blueprint for upcoming projects and software testers, saving them from starting from scratch.
  • To help new testers and developers quickly grasp testing, even when they join in the middle of an ongoing project.

Common Features of Test Cases

The following are some of the common features of test cases,

Revised and updated regularly

Software requirements keep varying depending on customer preferences or business priorities. So, whenever there is a change in the requirements, testers will have to modify the test cases accordingly.

Involves clustering

In a single test scenario, test cases often need to be executed in a certain order or a group. In such cases, certain prerequisites of one test case will apply to other test cases within the same sequence.

They are interdependent

It often depend on each other, particularly in layered applications that have multi-tier business logic.

Used by both testers and developers

Its helpful for both developers and testers. When developers fix a bug, they can easily replicate it using the test cases.

Types of Test Cases

Several types of test cases can help test different aspects of the software. As a software tester, understanding the difference between them will help you focus on the efforts and pick the right test format. Here are some common types of test cases,

Types of Test cases

Functionality

These test cases focus on verifying the functional requirements of the software by testing individual features or functionality to ensure they work as intended.

Performance

Performance test cases evaluate the performance of the software. It helps ensure that the software works as intended in terms of speed, stability, and scalability.

Unit

In general, software developers perform unit testing to verify their code or individual units. Unit test cases help check if each unit is working as intended and identify bugs in the early stages of development.

User Interface

UI test cases validate the software’s graphical user interface (GUI), ensuring that elements such as buttons, menus, forms, and layouts are working correctly and are easy to use.

Security

These test cases focus on identifying vulnerabilities and weaknesses in the software’s security measures. They aim to protect your application data against unauthorized access, malicious attacks and resist potential security threats.

Integration

Integration test cases verify that different software components are working as intended after integration. It helps check whether software components or modules integrate seamlessly to work as a complete product.

Database

The database is where all the application information will be stored. Database testing helps check what is happening in the background of an application. It is also called backend testing.

Database test cases make sure that the database is functioning correctly or not. Testers typically use SQL queries to create database test cases.

Usability

These test cases help check if users are able to use the application without any difficulty or confusion. It also checks factors such as ease of navigation, clarity of instructions, and overall user experience.

User Acceptance

User acceptance test cases help check the application from an end-user perspective. The test cases are broad and cover the entire application. UAT testing is typically the final step before the application goes to production.

Regression

Regression test cases help ensure that recent code changes do not affect the existing software functionality. They help maintain the stability and integrity of the software over time.

Typical Test Case Parameters

Let’s talk about the test case parameters in detail,

Test Case ID

It is a unique identifier for the test case. It is usually represented using alphanumeric or numeric characters.

Test Scenario

It is a brief description of what needs to be performed by the testers.

Test Case Description

It is a detailed explanation of what function has to be tested.

Test Steps

Test steps are a sequence of steps or actions to be executed to check a particular functionality or condition.

Prerequisite

Prerequisites are conditions that are required to perform the test. Typically, testers must check or fulfill the prerequisites before starting the test process.

Test Data

Test data refers to the input data or values required to execute the test case. For example, username and password are the test data to test the email login.

Expected Result

It refers to the expected behavior or output that should be observed when executing the test case.

Test Parameters

Parameters that are assigned to a specific test case.

Actual Result

It is the actual output or behavior observed during the test case execution.

Test Environment

Test environment refers to the environment in which the test has to be performed, like operating system, version, browser, etc. It includes all hardware, software, and network configurations.

Test Priority

Test priority is all about what test cases should be prioritized and what can be performed later.

Status

It shows the status of tests, like pass, fail, or NA.

Comments

It includes remarks on how developers can improve the software quality.

Example of Test Case Format

The following is an example of a test case to check the login functionality,

Test Case IDTest Case DescriptionTest StepsTest DataExpected ResultActual ResultStatus

TU01
Check user login when email ID and password are entered1. Go to website
2. https://id.testsigma.com/ui/login
3. Enter email ID
4. Enter password
5. Click submit
Email – 
sample@gmail.com
Password – 
Sample@123
User should be able to loginLogin was successfulPass
TU02Check user login when email ID and password are entered1. Go to website
2. https://id.testsigma.com/ui/login
3. Enter email ID
4. Enter password
5. Click submit
Email – 
sample2@gmail.com
Password – 
Sample@321
User should not be able to loginLogin was not successfulPass

Testers can create this table using Excel, Word, or any other Test management tool.

When Do We Write a Test Case?

Test cases are typically written during the test planning phase, which is part of the software testing life cycle. When the client shares the business requirements, the developer will start software development, and it might take a few months to create this product.

Meanwhile, the testing team will start creating the test cases. Once the test cases are created, the test lead or test engineer should review and approve the test cases. When the developers complete building the product, it will be sent to the testing team for the testing process.

Why Do We Write the Test Cases?

Test cases play a crucial role in the software testing lifecycle, as they discuss how testing must be executed. The main objective of writing test cases is to check whether the software works. Let’s take a look at some of the benefits of writing test cases,

  • It helps check whether a particular module or software meets the specified requirement.
  • It provide a clear and structured description of the test scenarios, inputs, and expected results. It is valuable for future reference, maintenance, and regression testing, ensuring the software functions correctly even after updates.
  • It helps determine whether the software works under a given set of conditions.
  • When you create test cases, you will think about all the aspects of your software application, which will help you identify any software gaps easily.

How to Write Test Cases With Examples

Here we explain, with the help of Testsigma, writing automated test cases with examples.

Example – Here, we will test the login functionality of a travel application.

Test Case Example

Step 1 – Go to Create a NewTest Case

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Step 2 – Create a relevant test case name and add the URL.

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Step 3 – Click Write Test Manually or use the Record Steps.

Step 4 – Clicking on Write Test Manually will allow you to create test cases according to your requirements using NLPs.

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Note – Here, we will use Write Test Manually as the option.Step 5 – Now, create test cases using the NLPs. You can select the relevant NLPs from your drop-down box.

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Note – You can also create custom NLPs and use them within your organization privately or make them public.

Step 6 – After creating your test cases, click on Run to execute the tests.

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Step 7 – Once the test is executed successfully, you will get the detailed results in the right panel.

Testsigma

Also, you can look into the testing using the Watch Video option.

Alternatively, clicking on Record Steps will navigate to the URL and open the application in a browser window. Then, you can interact with the application, and the user interactions will be recorded as test cases.

Best Practices to Write Test Cases

The following are some of the best practices to consider when writing test cases,

  • It should be kept simple and transparent. It must be clear and easy to read as it will be used by different testers while testing. To do so, use simple language like go to the website URL, enter the button, and so on.
  • It should be created by keeping the end user’s perspective in mind.
  • Ensure to refer to the specification document while preparing test cases, do not assume the software features and functionalities.
  • Try to achieve 100% test coverage by creating test cases that cover the entire software application. Use Traceability Matrix to make sure no function is left untested.
  • Avoid repeating the test cases. If you can execute multiple tests using the same test case, use the test case id to refer to that particular test case.
  • Use a proper test case id to easily identify the test cases in the later stages.
  • Use test design techniques to select test cases with the maximum possibility of finding bugs.
  • The test case should be self-standing and repeatable. That is, it should generate the same output whenever whoever runs it.
  • It must be reviewed. That is, the test lead or test engineer should review and approve the test cases. Testsigma has an in-built test review management feature that QAs can enable with just one tap. Read about Test case review
  • Include both positive and negative test cases (valid and invalid test data) to ensure robustness and stability.
  • Prioritize test case creation based on their criticality, risk, and importance.
  • Keep the test case description small and meaningful. This helps testers and developers quickly understand the purpose of the test case.
  • Create test cases that are self-cleaning. That is, it should revert the test environment to a pre-test state.

Best Practices For Test Case Management

You must plan your test cases and test suites. A lack of test case planning will lead to incorrect test steps.

  • Regularly review and update your test cases whenever there is a change in the business requirements.
  • Remove test cases that are outdated and no longer compatible with the software application.
  • Organize test cases in a logical and structured manner which helps testers easily identify and navigate through the test cases.
  • Use version control for test cases to track changes, revisions, and updates.
  • Leverage test automation tools to streamline the test case management process. These tools can help with test case creation, execution, tracking, and reporting.

Features of Test Case Management Tools

Test case management tools are the tools that help QA to manage and maintain test cases. The following are some of the top features of the test case management tools,

  • You can speed up the test case creation with the use of templates.
  • You can execute the test cases via automation tools and record the test results also.
  • Easily automate bug tracking by sending email notifications to developers whenever a bug is detected. Get here the list of Bug Tracking tools
  • Helps decrease the time and effort required for testing.
  • The advanced dashboards allow testers to easily track bugs and test progress.
  • You can easily configure and manage your test environment settings.
  • It allows teams to collaborate better and speed up the testing process.

Test Case Template

You should note that the template will vary depending on the project.

Test Case IDTest Case DescriptionTest StepsTest DataExpected ResultActual ResultStatus
TU01Check user login when email ID and password are enteredGo to website https://id.testsigma.com/ui/loginEnter email IDEnter passwordClick submitEmail – sample@gmail.comPassword – Sample@123User should be able to loginLogin was successfulPass
TU02Check user login when email ID and password are enteredGo to website https://id.testsigma.com/ui/loginEnter email IDEnter passwordClick submitEmail – sample2@gmail.comPassword – Sample@321User should not be able to loginLogin was not successfulPass

Get the Test Case Template for Enhanced Software Quality here – Test Case Template

Benefits of Writing High-quality Test Cases

Writing high-quality test cases offers several benefits throughout the software testing process. Below are some of the benefits of writing high-quality and effective test cases,

  • It helps improve the software quality and its user experience.
  • Guarantee that the software meets the end-user requirements.
  • Reduce software maintenance and support costs.
  • Higher test coverage.
  • Great product quality will lead to satisfied customers and high profits.
  • It helps determine whether the software works under a given set of conditions.
  • Test cases are highly reusable and can be reused for future projects.

Conclusion

To sum up, test cases are crucial to the software testing process. The goal of test case creation is not just to find bugs but to provide feedback on the software’s behavior and ensure it meets the desired quality standards.

By following the best practices outlined in this guide, you can enhance your testing process, improve bug detection, and streamline overall workflow. Remember, testing is not just a phase; it’s an ongoing process that should be given due attention throughout the development lifecycle.

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