10 Different Types Of QA Testing You Must Know
Software testing is a wide subject that encompasses multiple types. From developers executing unit testing as the first step to testers running integration and end-to-end tests, several testing types contribute to quality software and satisfied users. This blog is your guide to the list of different types of QA testing for web and mobile applications. They can either be manual or automated testing as per your needs.
Table Of Contents
- 1 What is QA Software Testing?
- 2 The Different Types of QA Software Testing
- 2.1 1. Unit Testing
- 2.2 2. Component Testing
- 2.3 3. Integration Testing
- 2.4 4. End-to-End Testing
- 2.5 5. Performance Testing
- 2.6 6. Regression Testing
- 2.7 7. Sanity Testing
- 2.8 8. Smoke Testing
- 2.9 9. System Testing
- 2.10 10. User Acceptance Testing
- 3 Conclusion
- 4 Frequently Asked Questions
What is QA Software Testing?
Quality Assurance (QA) software testing is the systematic process of evaluating and validating software to ensure it meets defined quality standards and functions. It involves a series of well-structured test types to identify defects or inconsistencies in the software. These test types include functional testing, which verifies the software’s core features and their adherence to specifications; regression testing, which ensures new code changes don’t break existing functionality; usability testing, which assesses the user-friendliness of the software; and performance testing, which gauges the application’s responsiveness under various loads.
An example of this would be testing a mobile app where functional testing confirms that all features work correctly, usability testing evaluates the user interface, and performance testing ensures the app remains responsive even with a high number of users.
The Different Types of QA Software Testing
High-quality product is paramount not only for customer use but also for businesses to make a mark in the market. Here is an exhaustive list of types of QA software testing that you should know about to develop and deploy a web or mobile application.
1. Unit Testing
Unit testing is a foundational component of software testing performed by the developers. It focuses on examining individual units or components of code in isolation with the primary purpose of validating that each unit functions correctly according to its design. A typical unit test might involve a single function, method, or class.
The criticality of unit testing lies in pinpointing bugs early in the development process. It verifies that the smallest building blocks of the software operate as intended, offering confidence in the reliability of higher-level functionalities. Take, for instance, a banking application containing multiple transactional features. A unit test for such an app can be to validate a function that calculates compound interest. Even a minute verification of a simple transaction leads to ensuring that the single component of the application functions correctly.
Can Unit Testing be Automated?
Unit testing can be automated using testing frameworks like JUnit and NUnit. These tools streamline the creation and execution of unit tests, aiding in early error detection and overall software quality.
- JUnit is a widely used Java testing framework for writing and running unit tests to ensure the correctness of Java code.
- NUnit is a unit testing framework for the .NET platform designed to facilitate the creation and execution of tests in C# and other .NET languages.
Component testing is a level of software testing that focuses on evaluating individual components or units of code in isolation. Components can be functions, classes, or methods, and the goal is to ensure that each unit performs its specific functions correctly. It comes after unit testing (which tests individual functions or methods) and before system testing (which tests the entire application).
Testers aim to identify and rectify issues within individual components, ensuring they work harmoniously when integrated into the larger software system. In a web application, component testing could involve scrutinizing the functionality of a login component. Each element—username input, password input, submit button, and their interactions—is tested individually to ensure they perform as expected before integration into the complete login system.
Can Component Testing be Automated?
Component testing can be automated using specialized testing tools and frameworks, which allow for the systematic and efficient execution of test cases on individual code components.
- Selenium is a widely used open-source tool for automating web application testing. It can be employed for component testing by scripting test cases that interact with individual code components, such as web forms or UI elements.
- While primarily known for unit testing, JUnit can also be used for component testing by organizing and automating test cases that evaluate specific Java classes and their methods in isolation.
Integration testing is a type of software testing that focuses on evaluating the interactions and interfaces between different modules or components of an application. Its primary objective is to ensure that these components when combined, work together seamlessly and produce the right outcomes. Integration testing helps identify issues such as data flow problems, communication errors, and interface mismatches that may arise when different parts of a software system come together.
This testing is conducted after unit testing (testing individual components) and before system testing (evaluating the entire integrated system).
In an e-commerce website, integration testing ensures that the shopping cart component properly communicates with the payment gateway. Test scenarios involve adding items to the cart, initiating the checkout process, and verifying that payment transactions are correctly processed and reflected in the order status.
Can Integration Testing be Automated?
It is possible to automate integration testing by using testing frameworks and tools that facilitate the execution of test scenarios involving interactions between various components.
- Postman is a popular API testing tool that allows you to automate the testing of API integrations. It provides a user-friendly interface for creating and executing integration test suites.
- Testsigma is an AI-driven test automation tool that helps automate integration testing as well as end-to-end testing by simplifying test script creation and execution, allowing for efficient testing of integrated software components.
You can read the comparison of Postman with Testsigma in this blog.
End-to-end testing, or E2E testing, is a type of QA testing that undertakes the complete verification of an application. It involves checking the website or the product from start to finish to make sure that all the components of the system are working properly in tandem.
Typically, end-to-end testing is done from the user’s perspective, which consists of validating the user interface, network communication, backend services, and databases. This type of quality assurance aims at validating the overall behavior of the system, including its reliability, security, functionality, and durability.
It comes after integration testing and before acceptance testing.
End-to-end testing in a web application involves testing the entire user journey, from login to checkout. For example, in an e-commerce site, E2E verifies that a user can successfully log in, add items to their cart, proceed to checkout, and complete the purchase without any errors or issues.
Can End-to-end Testing be Automated?
End-to-end testing can be automated, offering numerous benefits in terms of efficiency and reliability. Automated tests simulate real user interactions with an application, validating its functionality and uncovering potential issues.
- Appium is an open-source automation tool for mobile applications. It supports Android, iOS, and Windows apps, making it ideal for end-to-end testing on a variety of mobile devices and platforms.
- Testsigma is a cloud-based test automation tool that provides a codeless automation approach. It allows teams to create and maintain end-to-end tests without writing code, making it accessible to both technical and non-technical team members. Testsigma simplifies test automation for web applications, mobile apps, and APIs.
As per the name, performance testing is one of the testing types in QA that evaluates the speed, responsiveness, stability, and overall performance of the system. It checks the application under various conditions.
A non-functional testing type, performance testing is critical to identify and mitigate the possibility of performance bottlenecks that many applications experience with an increase in user number. No company wants to deliver a product with slow response rates and higher downtimes.
For instance, a performance test might simulate a high volume of simultaneous users accessing an e-commerce site to ensure it maintains fast response times and can handle the expected traffic during a flash sale or holiday shopping season. Read here – Performance Testing VS Load Testing
Can Performance Testing be Automated?
Performance testing can be effectively automated, offering efficiency and consistency in evaluating an application’s performance under various conditions. Automated performance testing tools can simulate user loads, stress, and scalability to identify bottlenecks and performance issues.
- Apache JMeter is an open-source tool for load and performance testing. It allows testers to create test plans to simulate various user scenarios for assessing the performance of web applications, APIs, and more.
- LoadRunner is a comprehensive performance testing tool that automates application testing processes. It offers a wide range of protocols and technologies for simulating realistic user loads, making it suitable for enterprise-level performance testing.
Regression testing is a type of testing that aims at validating the existing functionality of an application after new changes or updates are introduced in the system. Multiple upgrades will likely introduce logical or UI revisions to the application, which might conflict with the present features and lead to defects. Regression testing catches such bugs in a series of tests set up by the QA team to re-examine certain areas of the application after any change.
For example, after adding a new feature to a website, regression testing checks if existing functionality (e.g., login and payment processing) still works correctly, preventing unintended regressions.
Can Regression Testing be Automated?
Yes, regression testing can be efficiently automated, saving time and ensuring that existing functionality remains intact after code changes. Automated regression testing tools can quickly retest the application to identify any new defects.
- Testsigma is a test automation tool that supports a wide range of applications, including desktop, web, and mobile. It helps automate regression testing across various platforms and technologies.
- Katalon Studio is a comprehensive test automation tool that offers a user-friendly interface for automating regression tests for web, mobile, and API applications. It provides a range of pre-built keywords for automation and is suitable for both beginners and experienced testers.
One of the most critical types of testing, Sanity testing, focuses on verifying the fundamental functions of a software build. It is a subset of regression testing and aims to check if the code changes are working properly. It is usually performed in the initial stages of build development. And since this testing only looks at the basic features of the application, the test coverage area is limited, i.e., it only looks at critical functionality rather than identifying every possible bug in the system. For instance, after minor software updates, a sanity test checks if the login functionality of a mobile app still allows users to access their accounts without critical errors.
Can Sanity Testing be Automated?
Sanity testing can be automated to expedite the verification of critical functionalities in software applications. Automation ensures that essential features are working after changes without manual intervention.
- Jenkins is an open-source automation server that can be configured to execute automated sanity tests whenever code changes are made. It is highly customizable and allows for continuous integration and automated testing.
- Travis CI is a cloud-based, continuous integration platform that can automate sanity testing in your development pipeline. It integrates with version control systems, such as GitHub, and runs predefined tests automatically when code is updated.
Smoke testing is very similar to Sanity testing, the tests included in smoke testing will, generally, just be more selective and will have higher priority as compared to the ones included in sanity testing.
System testing is the process of validating a fully integrated system. It consists of a series of tests that focus on examining a fully developed, working software system to identify and mitigate bugs against specification requirements. It assesses the system’s behavior and performance by evaluating interactions among various components and subsystems.
System testing focuses on verifying that the software meets both functional and non-functional requirements, such as reliability, performance, and security. This testing phase is usually performed after integration testing and before user acceptance testing.
Can System Testing be Automated?
System testing can be automated, offering several advantages in terms of efficiency and repeatability. Automated system testing ensures that the entire integrated software functions correctly and meets its requirements.
- Testsigma is a cloud-based test automation tool that offers a codeless approach to automating system testing. It simplifies test creation, maintenance, and execution for both web and mobile applications, making it accessible to non-technical team members.
- Cypress is another automation tool designed for end-to-end testing of web applications. It provides an interactive and real-time testing experience, making it suitable for ensuring that different parts of the system work together seamlessly.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is the final phase of software testing performed by end-users or client representatives. The aim is to determine whether the software meets their requirements and whether it is ready for production use.
UAT is a critical step in the software development life cycle, as it focuses on validating that the software not only functions as intended but also aligns with the users’ needs and expectations.
In a banking application, user acceptance testing involves real bank customers testing the software to ensure it handles transactions accurately and securely. Users perform tasks like fund transfers, bill payments, and account balance checks to confirm the system meets their expectations and works without errors.
Can User Acceptance Testing be Automated?
UAT is typically a manual testing process that involves end-users or client representatives validating the software against their requirements and expectations. While automation can support various testing phases, automating UAT is challenging due to its user-centric nature and the need for human judgment. However, some of the tools can help with certain processes.
- TestRail is a test case management tool that can help streamline and manage the UAT process. It allows users to document test cases, record test results, and track UAT progress efficiently. While not a full automation tool, TestRail enhances the organization and management of UAT efforts.
- Testsigma is a cloud-based test automation tool that offers a codeless approach to automating UAT. It simplifies the process of creating, executing, and managing UAT test cases, making it accessible to non-technical users.
The purpose of software testing is to produce quality content. For this, testers do more than just focus on the important features of the software; they spend time uncovering the minute, basic errors that usually affect the system as a whole. Testers do this by performing different types of software testing that aim at covering the complete application. It involves unit testing, integration testing, regression testing, and more options.
This blog deals with the most common and essential types of QA testing. It also talks about automating all these tests and the QA automation tools that assist with the automation process.
Frequently Asked Questions
How many types of QA testing are there?
QA testing includes several types to ensure software quality. Common types include:
- Functional testing
- Manual and Automation Testing
- Regression Testing
- User Acceptance Testing
- Performance Testing
- Load and Security Testing
- Compatibility and Usability Testing
What is QA manual testing?
QA manual testing refers to the process of manually executing test cases and validating the functionality and quality of a software application. Read here – Software Application Testing
In this approach, QA testers interact with the software as end-users would, exploring the application’s features, functionalities, and user interfaces. They create and execute test cases, report defects, and verify that the software behaves according to specifications and user expectations. Read here – Defect Analysis
What’s the Difference Between QA and QC?
QA is a proactive process that focuses on preventing defects and ensuring proper processes are in place. It involves setting standards, creating guidelines, and improving efficiency. Quality Control (QC) is reactive, emphasizing defect identification and correction. It involves testing, inspecting, and verifying compliance with established standards. Read here- QC vs QA vs Testing