Getting Started With User Acceptance Testing

Would your product work with the users the way you want it to? The first step you can take to know that is via User acceptance testing. Here is a guide to get you started with it.

I see today’s digital terrain as fierce as a dragon! Something that you can do to persist is to deliver software applications that meet end-users’ expectations. One effective way to ensure the quality and usability of these applications is through User Acceptance Testing (UAT). This blog will guide you through the steps and best practices of UAT. We will cover everything so you can incorporate UAT into your software development lifecycle and deliver reliable and user-friendly applications that meet your users’ expectations.

What is User Acceptance Testing (UAT)?

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is an essential phase in software development, commonly known as beta or end-user testing. Software testing is done by the engaged audience or business representatives in real-world conditions. UAT ensures that the application meets the end users’ needs. It involves testing scenarios that accurately represent the actual usage of the software in the field.

What is the Purpose of UAT?

Here is the purpose why we use UAT:

  • Ensure the software or system meets the user’s requirements.
  • To validate that all user interactions and workflows are working correctly.
  • To gather feedback from end users and stakeholders to improve the software’s usability and user experience.
  • To assess the software’s quality, reliability, and performance according to users.
  • To mitigate risks associated with deploying faulty or incomplete software to production.
  • To provide confidence to stakeholders that the software is ready for release.

Who Writes UAT Test Cases?

A team of individuals with expertise in business and software testing typically writes UAT test cases. These individuals may include business analysts, subject matter experts, and quality assurance professionals. 

UAT Test Case Outcomes

During User Acceptance Testing (UAT), test case outcomes can vary depending on the specific scenarios and the system’s behavior under test. Here are some possible outcomes for UAT test cases:

  1. Pass: The test case executes as expected, and the system behaves according to the defined requirements and user expectations. No defects or issues are encountered during the test, indicating that the functionality under the test meets the acceptance criteria.
  2. Fail: The test case fails to execute as expected, and the system does not behave according to the defined requirements. This outcome indicates a defect or issue in the system that needs to be addressed before deployment.
    Failures may result from functionality not working as intended, data inconsistencies, or other factors.
  3. Blocked: The test case cannot be executed due to dependencies, environmental issues, or other constraints. This outcome indicates that testing cannot proceed until the blocking issue is resolved. Common reasons for blocking test cases include incomplete prerequisites, unavailable resources, or system downtime.
  4. Deferred: The test case is postponed for execution until later or release. This outcome may occur if the functionality under test is not available, dependencies are not met, or other factors prevent testing from proceeding.
    Deferred test cases should be prioritized and rescheduled for execution in future testing cycles.
  5. Conditional Pass: The test case partially meets the acceptance criteria, but some minor issues or deviations do not significantly impact the overall functionality.
    This outcome may require further analysis and discussion to determine whether the observed deviations are acceptable or require remediation before deployment.
  6. Error: An error occurs during the execution of the test case, preventing it from completing successfully. This outcome may result from technical issues, data inconsistencies, or other factors that must be investigated and resolved before retesting.
  7. Confirmation: The test case requires confirmation from stakeholders or subject matter experts before an outcome can be determined. This outcome may occur if there are discrepancies or uncertainties regarding the system’s expected behavior, requiring additional validation or clarification.

When Is User Acceptance Testing Performed?

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) typically occurs in the later stages of a software development lifecycle, just before the software is deployed into production. Specifically, UAT is conducted after the completion of system testing and often after any necessary regression testing.

The timing of UAT can vary depending on the project timeline, but it usually takes place after the following milestones:

  1. System Testing: This phase involves comprehensive software testing to ensure it meets the specified requirements and functions correctly. System testing may include functional testing, integration testing, and performance testing.
  2. Regression Testing: If any changes or enhancements have been made to the software since the last round of testing, regression testing is performed to ensure that these changes have not introduced any new defects or adversely affected existing functionality.

Once system testing and regression testing are complete and any identified issues are resolved, UAT can commence. UAT is conducted by end-users or stakeholders who will ultimately use the software in real-world scenarios. It serves as the final validation that the software meets their requirements and expectations.

After UAT is completed and any remaining issues are addressed, the software can be considered ready for deployment into the production environment. Therefore, UAT acts as a critical gatekeeper before the software is released to end-users, helping to ensure its quality and suitability for use.

How to Make Your UAT more Effective?

Making User Acceptance Testing (UAT) more effective involves careful planning, clear communication, and thorough execution. Here are some strategies to enhance the effectiveness of your UAT process:

  1. Define Clear Objectives: Clearly define the objectives and goals of the UAT phase. Ensure all stakeholders understand what is expected to be achieved through UAT and what success looks like.
  2. Involve Key Stakeholders: Involve representatives from all relevant stakeholder groups in the UAT process, including end-users, business analysts, project managers, and IT professionals. Their input and participation are essential for ensuring the system meets business requirements.
  3. Develop Complete Test Scenarios: Create a comprehensive set of test scenarios that cover all relevant business processes, workflows, and system functionalities. Test scenarios should be realistic, relevant, and aligned with user expectations.
  4. Provide Adequate Training: Ensure end-users in UAT receive adequate training on the software and testing process. Training should cover executing test scenarios, reporting issues, and providing feedback effectively.
  5. Establish Clear Communication Channels: Maintain open and transparent communication channels between project teams, end-users, and stakeholders throughout the UAT process. Encourage feedback, address concerns promptly, and provide regular updates on testing progress.
  6. Use Realistic Test Data: Realistic and representative data sets during UAT accurately simulate real-world scenarios. This helps ensure that the software behaves as expected under normal operating conditions.
  7. Document Test Results and Issues: Document all test results, including successes and failures and any issues encountered during testing. Use a structured approach to track and manage issues, including categorization, prioritization, and resolution.
  8. Encourage User Engagement: Encourage active participation and engagement from end-users during UAT. Solicit feedback, involve users in decision-making processes, and empower them to take ownership of the testing process.
  9. Perform Iterative Testing: Conduct multiple rounds of testing if necessary, allowing for iterative software refinement based on user feedback and identified issues. This iterative approach helps ensure the software evolves to meet user needs effectively.
  10. Evaluate Test Coverage and Quality: Regularly assess test coverage and the quality of test cases to ensure that all critical functionalities are adequately tested. Adjust test scenarios and priorities as needed to improve overall test coverage.

Here are some ways to take your UAT in an SAP implementation to an even higher level of effectiveness:

Think Beyond Functionality:

  • Usability Testing: Incorporate usability testing alongside functional testing. This involves observing users navigating the system and identifying pain points or areas hindering smooth workflows.
  • Diverse Testers: Consider including a wider range of testers beyond just power users. New or infrequent users might uncover usability issues that experienced users might need to know.

Leverage Technology:

  • Automated Testing Tools: Explore using automated testing tools to handle repetitive tasks, freeing up user testers for more strategic testing focusing on user experience.
  • Collaboration Tools: Utilize collaboration platforms to streamline communication and feedback exchange between testers, developers, and stakeholders.

Focus on Continuous Improvement:

  • Post-UAT Feedback: Gather feedback from users after the system goes live to identify any lingering issues or areas for improvement. This can inform future UAT processes.
  • Lessons Learned: Conduct a post-implementation review to analyze the UAT process itself. Identify areas for improvement and incorporate them into future UAT cycles for even greater effectiveness.

Who Performs UAT?

1. End Users: The primary people who do UAT are the end users themselves. These are the individuals who will be using the system regularly once it is deployed. Their feedback and input during UAT ensure that the system meets their needs and expectations.

2. Business Analysts: Business analysts play a vital role in UAT as they deeply understand the business requirements and goals. They help define test scenarios and ensure the system meets these requirements.

3. Quality Assurance (QA) Team: The QA team coordinates and facilitates UAT. They work closely with end users to plan, execute, and track test cases and report any issues or defects found during testing. Read more on UAT Vs QA Key Differences.

4. Development Team: The development team may also be involved in UAT to address any technical issues or bugs during testing. They collaborate with end users and QA to resolve these issues before the final release.

5. Project Managers: Project managers oversee the UAT process, ensuring it stays on schedule and meets project objectives. They coordinate resources, provide guidance, and communicate progress to stakeholders.

6. Stakeholders: Stakeholders, such as senior management or clients, may also participate in UAT to validate that the system meets their expectations and requirements.

UAT is a cooperative effort involving individuals who collectively ensure the system is ready for deployment. They thoroughly test its usability, functionality, and adherence to business needs.

Importance of UAT

UAT is important for several reasons:

Validation: UAT allows users to validate whether the software meets their specific needs and performs as expected in real-world scenarios.

Bug identification: UAT helps uncover any user-facing defects or issues that may have been missed during earlier testing phases, allowing them to be addressed before release.

User feedback: UAT allows users to provide feedback on the software’s usability, functionality, and overall user experience. This feedback can be invaluable in making necessary improvements and enhancements.

Risk mitigation: By conducting UAT, potential risks and challenges associated with deploying the software can be identified and addressed beforehand, reducing the likelihood of major disruptions or failures.

User satisfaction: Finally, UAT ensures that end-users are satisfied with the software and that it meets their expectations. This leads to higher user adoption rates, increased customer satisfaction, and business success.

Types of UAT

Organizations can choose from different types of UAT, depending on their specific needs. These include:

1. Alpha Testing – The first phase of testing where the developers test the application in-house before it is released to the end-users. 

2. Beta Testing – A limited release of the product to a select group of end-users to discover bugs and issues not identified in the earlier testing phases. 

Can You Automate User Acceptance Testing?

Some aspects of User Acceptance Testing (UAT) and Usability Testing can be automated using various testing tools, notably the software’s user interface (UI) component. However, it is necessary to note that both UAT and Usability Testing rely heavily on subjective evaluation by human testers, which makes complete automation difficult.

For example, UI testing tools like Testsigma or Selenium can automate functional testing in UAT and simulate user interactions for Usability Testing. These tools can check if the software functions as intended and whether the user interface meets the usability standards.

Prerequisites of User Acceptance Testing

Shall we look into some Prerequisites:

1. The availability of Business Requirements is a prerequisite. 

2. The Application Code must be fully developed. 

3. Completion of Unit, Integration, and System Testing is mandatory. 

4. Completion of Regression Testing with no major defects is mandatory. 

5. The fixing and testing all reported defects before UAT are required. 

6. Completion of the traceability matrix for all testing is necessary. 

7. The UAT Environment must be prepared and ready.

How to Perform UAT?

To perform UAT, you must first gather a group of representative end-users to test the software in a real-world environment. Start by defining test scenarios and scripts that cover all the functionalities of the software. Next, provide the testers with the necessary training and tools to perform the tests effectively. Monitor the testing progress, record any defects found, and prioritize them according to severity. 

Finally, analyze the results, address the defects, and obtain sign-off from the end-users before releasing the software. 

After users do the testing, if certain test cases emerge that you’d like to include in your regular testing cycles, that should be done. These test cases could then be included in your automated test suite, which can be executed every time before deployment. Use a test automation tool that easily integrates with your CICD pipeline, making automating your tests easier.

Challenges of UAT

Here are the major challenges in the UAT process:

1. Lack of training and guidance:

UAT users may need help understanding the software’s features and functionalities or how to perform testing. This can lead to incorrect or incomplete testing, leaving issues undetected.

2. Complex scenarios:

The software may have complex scenarios that require specific testing conditions, which may require more work for UAT users to execute adequately.

3. Different user requirements:

UAT users may have different user requirements, and it can be challenging to determine which requirements to test and how to test them thoroughly.

4. Time constraints:

UAT users may face time constraints that limit the number of test scenarios they can execute, resulting in incomplete testing and unvalidated software.

5. Communication gaps:

Communication gaps between the development team and UAT users may lead to confusion about requirements, how to test them, or how to report issues effectively. This can lead to inaccurate feedback and a longer product development cycle.

To mitigate these challenges, UAT users need proper training and support to conduct thorough testing and provide valuable feedback.

Clear guidelines on testing scenarios, detailed requirements, and acceptance criteria help minimize misunderstandings and ensure testing is executed correctly. It is also important to allocate enough time for UAT testing and maintain continuous communication with the development team to resolve any issues.

UAT Best Practices and Checklist

UAT checklist and Best Practices tick the following:

1. Define Clear Objectives: The User Acceptance Testing (UAT) process should have clearly defined objectives and goals. A shared understanding of what needs to be accomplished during the testing phase is important because it helps all stakeholders.

2. Involve Key Stakeholders: You should involve end-users, business analysts, developers, and project managers. Their involvement ensures that UAT covers all necessary perspectives and requirements.

3. Test Planning: Develop a comprehensive plan outlining the scope, test scenarios, test cases, and expected outcomes for each UAT phase. This helps in organizing the testing effort effectively and ensures maximum coverage.

4. Test Environment Setup: Set up a dedicated testing environment that closely resembles the production environment to simulate real-world conditions accurately. This includes configuring hardware, software, network settings, and any other dependencies required for testing.

5. Test Data Preparation: Test data preparation is essential for ensuring comprehensive and accurate testing, as it allows for identifying potential issues and validating system functionality under different conditions.

Exit Criteria for UAT

The below given are the criteria to exit your UAT.

  • All test cases have been executed and passed successfully.
  • All identified defects have been resolved and retested.
  • User acceptance criteria have been met.
  • All required documentation, such as user manuals and training materials, have been prepared and reviewed.
  • The system performance meets the defined requirements.
  • The system is stable and reliable, with no critical issues or errors affecting its functionality.
  • The UAT environment is fully set up and ready for production deployment.
  • All stakeholders involved in UAT are satisfied with the system’s functionality and usability.

What is UAT in SAP implementation?

UAT (User Acceptance Testing) in SAP implementation refers to the final phase of testing before a new SAP system or SAP system upgrade is deployed into production. In this phase, end-users from various organizational departments test the system to ensure it meets their requirements and performs as expected in real-world scenarios.

Key aspects of UAT in SAP implementation include:

  1. Test Scenario Creation: End-users create test scenarios based on their day-to-day tasks and business processes. These scenarios should cover a wide range of functionalities within the SAP system.
  2. Test Execution: End-users perform testing using the created scenarios. They execute transactions, workflows, and processes within the SAP system to validate that it functions correctly and meets their business needs.
  3. Defect Reporting and Resolution: If any issues or discrepancies are identified during testing, end-users report them to the project team. The project team then works to resolve these issues and re-tests them to ensure they are fixed.
  4. Training Verification: UAT also serves as an opportunity to verify that end-users have been adequately trained to use the SAP system. Any training gaps or issues can be identified and addressed during this phase.
  5. Sign-Off: Once testing is complete and all identified issues are resolved satisfactorily, end-users provide formal sign-off indicating their acceptance of the SAP system. This sign-off is typically required before the system can be deployed into production.

Pitfalls to Avoid When Doing SAP UAT

User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is a crucial phase in SAP implementation, and avoiding pitfalls can significantly contribute to its success. Here are some common pitfalls to avoid when conducting SAP UAT:

  1. Insufficient Planning: Inadequate planning for UAT can lead to missed requirements, lack of coverage, and delays. Ensure thorough planning, including defining test scenarios, timelines, roles, and responsibilities well in advance.
  2. Inadequate User Involvement: UAT is user-centric, so involving end-users from various departments and levels is critical. Lack of user involvement can result in overlooking essential functionalities and user perspectives.
  3. Incomplete Test Scenarios: Test scenarios should cover various business processes and system functionalities. Incomplete or unrealistic test scenarios may fail to uncover critical issues, leading to post-deployment problems.
  4. Rushed Testing: Rushing through UAT due to time constraints can result in inadequate testing coverage and oversight of critical functionalities. Allocate sufficient time for thorough testing to identify and address potential issues effectively.
  5. Ignoring Business Processes: SAP implementations often involve complex business processes. Ensure that UAT focuses on accurately validating these processes within the SAP system. Ignoring business processes can lead to better alignment between the system and business needs.
  6. Lack of Communication: Effective communication is essential throughout the UAT phase. Ensure clear communication channels between project teams, end-users, and stakeholders to address concerns, provide feedback, and facilitate collaboration.
  7. Inadequate Training: End-users need proper training to participate in UAT effectively. Inadequate training can result in confusion, errors, and dissatisfaction with the system. Provide comprehensive training on SAP functionalities and UAT processes to ensure users are well-prepared.
  8. Neglecting Data Quality: UAT should use realistic and representative data to simulate actual business scenarios accurately. Neglecting data quality issues can lead to erroneous test results and mask potential system defects.
  9. Overlooking Performance Testing: Performance issues can severely impact system usability and user satisfaction. Performance testing should be included in UAT to identify and address scalability or performance-related issues before deployment.
  10. Incomplete Documentation: Thorough documentation of test scenarios, test results, issues, and resolutions is essential for future reference and audit purposes. Ensure thorough documentation throughout the UAT process to facilitate knowledge transfer and support post-deployment activities.

What are Some Tools that help Successfully Perform UAT?

There are 2 types of tools available when we talk about UAT, one are to automate the complete process of user acceptance testing, and ones that automate the UI test cases that come up and can be used as regression tests post UAT.

Tool to automate UI test cases



Testsigma is a cloud-based test automation platform that provides a unique AI-powered approach to user acceptance testing. It offers features such as codeless test creation, cross-browser testing, integration with popular tools, and AI-powered testing, making it a powerful and efficient tool for testing complex software applications.

Features Of Testsigma

  • Automate easily in simple English
  • Start test automation in minutes
  • Automate for web, mobile & APIs from the same place
  • Save time on your test maintenance with AI-supported built-in features
  • Easy and efficient test execution on the cloud
  • Debug with the help of screenshots, videos, and logs easily
  • Get reports that you can customize according to your needs
  • Setup all your review and collaboration processes on the cloud
  • Easily integrate with CI/CD tools
  • Access your tests from anywhere, anytime
  • Helpful support that is there for you 24×7

Let’s discuss the three best tools to automate the processes of user acceptance testing:

3 Best User Acceptance Testing Tools



Hotjar is a user testing and feedback tool that allows you to understand how users interact with your website. By providing insights into how users navigate your site, Hotjar helps you identify areas where improvements can be made. This makes it an essential tool for user acceptance testing.

Features Of HotJar

  • Heatmaps: It shows where users click and scroll on your website. This provides valuable insight into which areas of your site are the most popular or engaging. This feature is especially useful for identifying areas requiring further testing or optimization.
  • User recordings: Hotjar also offers recordings that allow you to see how users interact with your site in real-time. By watching these recordings, you can identify any usability issues or pain points that users may be experiencing, helping you to optimize your site for user acceptance.
  • Feedback polls: It allows you to create custom feedback polls that prompt users to provide feedback on specific areas of your site. This feedback can be invaluable for identifying areas that require further testing or optimization.
  • Surveys: Hotjar also offers surveys that allow you to gather in-depth user feedback. By asking specific questions about your site or product, you can gain valuable insights into user acceptance and satisfaction.
  • Funnel analysis: It provides funnel analysis tools. They allow you to track how users move through your site, from initial visits to final conversions. This feature is essential for identifying any bottlenecks or areas where users must stay on track. In this way, you can optimize your site for user acceptance.


  1. Hotjar focuses primarily on user testing and feedback rather than thorough testing or debugging.
  2. Its features are focused on website testing and may need to be more suitable for testing mobile or desktop applications.

Pricing Model

  • Hotjar offers a free plan with limited features and paid plans starting at $39/month.

Overall, Hotjar is an excellent tool for user acceptance testing. They offer a range of valuable features that can help you optimize your site for maximum user satisfaction.


userbrain UAT Tool

UserBrain is a remote user testing tool that allows you to get feedback from real users about your website or application. With UserBrain, you can test your site’s usability and user experience, making it an essential tool for user acceptance testing.

Features Of UserBrain

  • Remote user testing: UserBrain lets you get feedback from real users worldwide, providing valuable insight into how users from different backgrounds and locations interact with your site.
  • Screen recordings: It provides screen recordings of each user’s interaction with your site, allowing you to see how users navigate and interact.
  • Task-based testing: UserBrain allows you to create specific tasks for users to complete, such as filling out a form or navigating to a specific page. This feature is essential for testing specific user flows and identifying areas where users need help or clarification.
  • Detailed feedback: It provides detailed feedback from each user, including their overall impression of your site, any usability issues they encountered, and suggestions for improvement.


Zephyr UAT Tool

Zephyr is a comprehensive test management tool that includes support for user acceptance testing. With its intuitive interface and advanced features, Zephyr is a popular choice for managing testing activities across the entire software development lifecycle.

Features Of Zephyr

  • Test case management: Zephyr allows you to create and manage test cases for user acceptance testing, making organizing and executing tests easy.
  • Test execution: It provides a powerful platform for executing user acceptance tests, including tracking test results and automatically generating reports.
  • Integrations: Zephyr integrates with various other testing tools and platforms, including JIRA, Confluence, and Bamboo, making it easy to integrate testing activities into your overall software development workflow.
  • Real-time collaboration includes powerful features, allowing multiple users to work on the same test case simultaneously and providing real-time updates to all team members.

Limitations Of Zephyr

  1. Zephyr’s pricing may be a limiting factor for small teams or organizations with limited budgets.
  2. Some users have reported issues with the platform’s user interface, particularly around the complexity of certain features and workflows.

Overall, Zephyr is a powerful and comprehensive tool for user acceptance testing, providing advanced features for test management and execution. Visit their website to learn more about Zephyr and use it for your testing needs.


The User Acceptance Testing is like the giant final show! It’s important because it ensures the system is easy for users to use, meets their expectations, and gives them what they need. If you plan out the UAT properly, everybody gets relaxed when the product is about to be released. It’s better to strategize and finish the testing beforehand so the development team can fix any mistakes and performance issues before the big launch.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an example of user acceptance testing?

What is UAT testing in Agile?

What are UAT activities?