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Exploring Test Case vs Test Script: What’s the Difference?

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Exploring Test Case vs Test Script: What's the Difference?
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According to recent studies, more than 86% of businesses worldwide now rely on software testing to ensure the quality and reliability of their applications. When a tester begins their testing journey, the first thing they usually learn is how to document test cases. And when they learn test automation, they convert those test cases to test scripts. This blog will take you on a journey to understand the difference between test cases vs test scripts.

  • A test case refers to a set of conditions or actions designed to verify a particular application functionality under test.

  • A test script is an automated computer program that performs the same steps as a test case but via a tool.

What is a Test case?

A test case refers to testers’ instructions to validate a particular functionality or software application feature. It is a detailed description of a test’s inputs, operating conditions, and expected outputs. These test cases

  • Find software errors, bugs, or problems, which developers can fix.

  • They help ensure the quality and reliability of the software by providing a systematic approach to testing.

  • It is necessary to ensure that each test case is clear and concise, referencing the relevant requirement or features of the software.

  • Proper documentation and management of all test cases are necessary for successful testing and quality product delivery.

Why do we need a Test case?

Test cases are essential to identify potential defects and bugs in software applications before they become significant problems. Therefore, creating well-written, comprehensive test cases is critical for effective software development and quality assurance.

How could you write a test case?

Here is a test case example that verifies that a user can register successfully on a registration page-

  1. Go to the registration page
  2. Enter a valid name, email address, and password
  3. Select “Create Account”
  4. Ensure the user gets taken to the home page after logging in.
  5. Verify that the user is logged in
  6. Log out of the account
  7. Verify that the user is logged out
  8. Try to log in using the credentials created in step 2
  9. Verify that the user can log in successfully

Test case example

  1. Navigate to https://www.google.com/
  2. Enter books in the inputText field
  3. Press Enter/Return Key
  4. Verify that the current page displays textbooks

Sample Test case Template

Let’s discuss a sample test case to test whether an existing user can log in to the website successfully. Test Objective: Confirm you can log into the website using the correct information.Pre-requisites: A valid username and password.

Steps:

  1. Launch the application under test.
  2. Enter the valid username and password.
  3. Click the ‘Login’ button.
  4. Ensure that the user logs in successfully.

Expected Result: The user should be successfully logged in to the website.

What is a Test Script?

When you take the steps from a test case and automate them via some tool, usually a test automation tool, it becomes a test script.

How to Write a Test Script?

The tool for test automation supports the language in which the test script is written. Let’s understand the steps involved in the creation of a test script.

  1. Requirements: Before writing a test script, it is essential to understand the purpose of the test and the expected outcome. Get conditions and read user reports and manuals.

  2. Identify Test Cases: With the requirements in hand, identify the test cases that need to be automated.

  3. Identify Test Data: Identify the data needed to execute the test cases to ensure the test cases are comprehensive.

  4. Write the Script: Develop the script based on the test cases and test data determined.

  5. Test the Script: Execute the script and ensure it runs

  6. Document the Results: Document the results of the test script execution and any bugs encountered.

  7. Debug the Script: Debug the script and make necessary changes if any bugs are encountered.

  8. Retest the Script: Retest the debugged item to ensure it performs as expected.

  9. Document the Final Version: Once the script is working as expected, document the final version of the script.

  10. Archive the Script: Finally, archive the script for future use.

Template for a Test script

Below we discuss a test script template:

Test Name/ Title: Give a Title of the test case

Summary of Test: Define the summary or test purpose in brief

Date of the test created: Creation of Test Date(autogenerated in most cases)

Designed by: Include Tester’s Name

Reviewed by: Include Reviewer’s Name

Prerequisites: The prerequisites for executing this test case include all the test cases that should be executed before the execution of this particular test.

Test Steps: As per execution, please go ahead and detail all the test steps and write them in order. While writing test steps, please make sure that you provide as much detail as possible.

Executed by: Once the test is executed, this will mention the person who initiated the test execution.

Date of the Execution: The date on which the test was executed.

Expected Results: Mention the expected result, including the error or message that should appear on the screen.

Test Status (Fail/Pass): IF all the steps pass, then the status will be “Pass” if one of the steps fails to execute as expected, the status will appear as “Fail.”

Image showing a test script example in Testsigma

Test script example in Testsigma
Test cases and Test steps

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Summary-Difference Between Test Case vs Test Script

The difference between the Test case and Test Script is summarized in the table below:

Test CaseTest Script
Test cases are written before the actual testing is done to define the scope of the testing.Test scripts are usually written after certain rounds of testing are done and we know that the functionality being automated works.
Test cases are written for manual test execution. Test scripts are written for automated test execution.
Test cases are written in English or the language of the tester.Test scripts are written in the language supported by the tool being used for automated test execution.
Test cases document the steps to be followed during testing.Test scripts automate the test steps for test execution.

Wrapping up

We now understand the part test cases and test scripts play in the different testing processes. Test cases are the first step in documenting the testing process for a function or a feature. Each test case tests one aspect of the software. On the other hand, test scripts automate the test steps for a test case.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are test case management tools?

Test case management tools are the applications that help teams manage their test cases better. These tools help us design, run, and report on the results of test cases.

What makes a good test script?

A good test script tests the specific details that need to be tested for passing a test case. In case a test script fails during test case execution, it should report easily understandable errors to help with debugging.

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