RCA in Testing for Software Defects

April 22, 2024Ritika Kumari
RCA in Testing for Software Defects

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At its core, Root Cause Analysis (RCA) in software testing operates much like seeking answers to everyday predicaments. Imagine when you are unwell and seeking the cause of your ailment or when your electricity goes out, and we’re determined to identify the underlying issue. Similarly, in the realm of software, when defects arise, the purpose of RCA is akin to unveiling the true source of these glitches.

Just as simple remedies don’t suffice when we’re sick or dealing with a malfunction in the house, addressing symptoms alone in software defects overlooks the crucial question: “Why?”.

In this blog, we’ll uncover how RCA functions in guiding us to delve deep, not just into symptoms, but into the very core of software issues.

What is Root Cause Analysis?

Root Cause Analysis (RCA) in software testing is a systematic approach used to identify and address the underlying reasons behind software defects. By addressing the underlying causes, RCA helps in improving software quality by enhancing development processes, communication, and collaboration.

RCA involves a structured investigation process that examines various aspects of the software development and testing lifecycle, including requirements, design, coding, testing, and deployment.

Why To Perform Root Cause Analysis?

Here are some of the key features of root cause analysis in software testing that make it important:

  • It helps in cost reduction associated with defect correction. By pinpointing the accurate reason for errors, RCA helps resolve problems before the software reaches the production stage, where defect identification and mitigation is five times more expensive than the design stage.
  • With an error-free product and an efficient RCA process in place, you can identify, solve, and deliver software at an accelerated speed to gain a competitive advantage in the market.
  • RCA enables companies to find the source of defects to promote a seamless problem-solving approach and remove the issue from its root, ensuring better software quality.
  • Better quality software is sure to add to the existing customer experience and improve upon it. Clearly, RCA contributes to enhancing customer satisfaction.

Examples of Root Cause Analysis

Let’s explore an example where RCA proves invaluable for a high-traffic e-commerce website grappling with sluggish performance during peak periods.

Issue: The e-commerce website experiences sluggish performance during peak traffic, causing user frustration and potential revenue loss.

RCA Process:

To address this challenge, the testing team initiates the RCA process by collecting performance metrics, server logs, and user feedback. Their comprehensive analysis reveals a critical insight: the website’s response time significantly increases when users attempt to add items to their cart. Further investigation uncovers that the cart update process triggers numerous database queries per item, leading to a database bottleneck that hampers overall performance. With this revelation, the development team takes swift action. They optimize database queries, introduce caching mechanisms, and implement load-balancing strategies for efficient traffic distribution. To prevent future occurrences, performance testing becomes an integral part of the development lifecycle, identifying and rectifying potential bottlenecks at an early stage.

Let’s take another instance where RCA uncovers the intricacies of the problem and offers solutions for consistent, reliable results.

Issue: A financial software application generates inconsistent financial reports, causing confusion and eroding user trust.

RCA Process:

In this scenario, the testing team embarks on an RCA journey to address data inconsistencies. They begin by conducting meticulous data validation tests, comparing outputs against expected results. Discrepancies emerge, particularly when the application handles extensive data involving complex calculations. The root cause analysis reveals that certain data inputs contain non-numeric characters that disrupt essential calculations. Moreover, existing error-handling mechanisms prove inadequate. The development team responds swiftly, enhancing the software’s defenses with robust input validation mechanisms and bolstering error-handling procedures to ensure precise calculations and consistent outcomes. To safeguard data integrity, automated data validation checks are introduced, and comprehensive data integrity tests become routine during each release cycle.


Root cause analysis in testing has three goals aimed at identifying, mitigating, and preventing issues in the system:

  • Identify the cause of the problem, i.e., discover the root of the cause.
  • Understand the root cause and analyze how to resolve the problem.
  • Put the learnings of the analysis into practice to fix the issue and prevent future system breakdowns.

RCA in Test Automation

Test automation plays a pivotal role in enabling effective Root Cause Analysis (RCA) by providing consistent, repeatable, and comprehensive testing processes. In a complex software environment, defects can originate from various sources, such as code changes, integration issues, or configuration discrepancies. Automated tests offer the advantage of executing a wide range of test cases consistently, capturing valuable data points, and allowing rapid regression testing. This extensive test coverage generates a wealth of data that can be analyzed during RCA to identify patterns, trends, and potential root causes of failures.

Here is a guide with in-depth discussions on the different characteristics of test automation.

Check out the guide

But how do you combine RCA with test automation in real? By making use of a test automation tool that is equipped with capabilities to execute RCA. 

Test automation tools can help in RCA processes by providing clear and useful reports. For example, Testsigma tool offers customizable reports with screenshots, videos, and logs, and testers can analyse the test failure patterns across test runs over a period of time. Additionally, the tool comes with deugging features to help with quick and efficient debugging.

Try Testsigma QA automation tool to drive your testing efforts 5x faster without spending time on coding complex testing scripts.

Tips to Follow for Performing Effective RCA

Performing RCA is important, but following the right path for analysis is important. A few tips can take your RCA in testing to the next level:

  • Collect relevant information such as error logs, test results, user feedback, and system performance metrics to form a solid foundation for your analysis.
  • While picking out a test automation tool, make sure it has logging and reporting feature for properly executing RCA.
  • Bring together representatives from development, testing, design, and other relevant areas to gain diverse insights and expertise.
  • Approach the problem from different angles – technical, process-related, human factors, and external influences – to ensure a comprehensive analysis.
  • Not all potential root causes are equal. Use data and impact analysis to prioritize which issues to tackle first for maximum impact.
  • Alongside addressing current issues, establish preventive measures to avoid similar problems in future development cycles.
  • Utilize established RCA methodologies like the 5 Whys, Fishbone (Ishikawa) Diagrams, or Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to systematically explore potential root causes.


Finding a solution to a problem is the right way to handle it, but identifying the root cause of the issue is the best way. Once you know what you are dealing with, the present and future become easier to manage. In software testing as well, fixing a defect will give you instant improvement, but eliminating it fully will eradicate future breakdowns of the system.

Root cause analysis (RCA) in testing is a critical component of uncovering the major reasons behind the malfunctioning of software and making it vanish for the good.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an RCA tool?

An RCA tool in testing is a software solution designed to facilitate the systematic investigation of root causes behind issues arising in software. It provides structured methodologies, data collection, analysis, and collaboration features to enhance the problem-solving process in software testing.

What are the types of RCA?

In testing, there can be RCA for three types of issues:

  • Internal issues: This includes code changes, software/hardware failures, server issues, or any such defects associated with the internal functioning of the system.
  • Human-made problems: Software undergoes frequent modifications, and it is likely that a bug can arise after updates to the system. They would often be due to unintentional errors made by individuals working on the project.
  • Communication gap: If a requirement specification or bug definition gets lost in the hierarchy of the project, it is often contributed as collaboration/communication issue.
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