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Cost of a Defect: Unboxing the Hidden Consequences

November 10, 2023Rahul Parwal
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Cost of a Defect Unboxing the Hidden Consequences
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We are surrounded by software! 

However, we rarely focus on the consequences that can happen if software fails. Today, we will dive deeper into the fascinating world of defects to understand how even the tiniest of glitches can have critical consequences. Most software anomalies might appear inconsequential at first, but we’ll understand that ripple effects can span across finances, reputation, employee morale, and beyond. 

Get ready to explore the intricate layers of defect costs that lurk beneath the surface of the software world.

The Social Costs


social costs

Reputation Loss: A Cautionary Tale of Boeing 737 MAX Aircraft

In 2018, Boeing, a towering giant in the aerospace industry, unveiled the Boeing 737 MAX aircraft. It was an exciting moment for aviation, but little did they know that a series of software-related defects would put their reputation at risk.

Two devastating crashes occurred:

  • Lion Air Flight 610 in October 2018
  • Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 in March 2019

causing the deaths of 346 people. The heart-breaking incidents were traced back to a software glitch. A bitter revelation that shattered Boeing’s reputation in an industry where trust is paramount.

Lesson: The loss of lives was irreplaceable, and the damage to Boeing’s reputation was enormous. There are social consequences of software defects.

The Financial Costs


Financial costs

Facebook NASDAQ Disaster

Back in 2012, during the highly anticipated initial public offering (IPO) of Facebook. The event captured the world’s attention, but it swiftly devolved into a financial nightmare due to a software glitch.

Nasdaq’s trading platform encountered unforeseen hiccups, causing significant disruptions. Unable to confirm orders, traders were left in the dark, confusing the entire market. Investors and brokerages bore the brunt of this software hiccup, resulting in financial losses and severe damage to Nasdaq’s reputation.

Lesson: The Nasdaq Facebook IPO disaster serves as a reminder that software defects can manifest in the most unexpected places, triggering financial repercussions that extend far beyond the realm of technology.  

The Technical Costs


The technical costs

A tale of technical burden: Microsoft’s October 2018 Update

Microsoft’s Windows 10 October Update (Version 1809) was highly anticipated. As soon as it was released, reports flooded about users losing their documents, photos, and precious files during the update. 

Due to the panic, Microsoft had to halt the rollout and investigate immediately.

Root Cause: An annoying software defect.

Lesson: The incident highlights technical costs associated with a software defect. Microsoft’s response involved halting the rollout, investigating the issue, and releasing a fix. The technical and operational costs escalated due to hidden technical complexities.

The Testing Costs


the testing costs

Unexpected Costs of Testing, Documenting, & Reproducing Issues: HealthCare.gov’s Ordeal

One of the highly anticipated HealthCare.gov was launched in 2013. The website was designed to streamline the process of enrolling in health insurance plans under Obamacare. However, technical issues cast a long shadow and disappointment over this grand vision.

Slow-loading pages, frequent crashes, difficulty in creating an account, and verifying user information marred the initial rollout. To address these defects and ensure the website’s functionality, the U.S. government had to allocate additional budgets for extensive testing and debugging efforts.

Lesson: The HealthCare.gov debacle exemplifies the significant testing costs that can arise from software defects. The government had to invest substantial time and resources to rectify the situation, underscoring the importance of rigorous testing before launching any software product.

Operational Costs


operational cost

The Toll of Additional Support: British Airways’ Software Saga

Remember your latest flight boarding experience? 

When you were eagerly anticipating your upcoming journey. But British Airways (BA), in 2017, had a different narrative. Their check-in system malfunctioned due to a software defect, triggering a global IT outage and domino effect failures.

Due to this issue, multiple flights were canceled, baggage handling went haywire, and passengers encountered endless delays and frustration. To mitigate the operational fallout, British Airways had to deploy additional staff, compensate affected passengers, and invest heavily in rectifying the underlying software problem.

Lesson: This scenario highlights the operational costs caused due to a software defect. Beyond the technical and financial burdens, the need for additional support staff to handle customer complaints and implement workarounds can be a substantial drain on your existing operational system.

Lost Opportunities


Apple iOS6 Maps Issue

Apple iOS6 Maps Issue

In 2012, Apple introduced its own mapping application as a replacement for Google Maps in iOS 6. 

The bold move was blocked by a host of production defects. Users encountered inaccuracies, missing landmarks, and unreliable directions that led to a series of missed opportunities.

Apple had the potential to cross-sell other products and services, such as Siri and location-based app recommendations, to users who switched to alternative mapping apps like Google Maps. However, the poor user experience damaged Apple’s reputation and led to lost revenue from location-based services, app recommendations, and advertisements.

The Apple Maps fiasco demonstrates that software defects can incur immediate costs hindering the realization of potential revenue streams. 

Lesson: It serves as a reminder that user experience, quality, and trust are invaluable commodities that cannot be achieved without proper testing.

Customer Acquisition Costs


customer acquisition cost

Equifax data breach, 2017

Defects can increase customer acquisition costs. 

As organizations scramble to build trust and attract new customers, replacing lost customers is proven to be more expensive than retaining existing ones.

One striking example is the Equifax Data Breach of 2017. The security breach exposed the personal information of 147 million US consumers, triggering a crisis. Equifax found itself in the unenviable position of having to work diligently to rebuild customer trust and reputation. It leads to the following:

  • Increased Customer Acquisition Efforts: Equifax had to invest significantly in rebuilding trust. This involved extensive marketing and communication efforts to address customer concerns and promote improved security measures.
  • Impact on Attracting New Customers: The incident cast a long shadow over Equifax’s ability to attract new customers. Heightened regulatory scrutiny, which indirectly impacted customer acquisition costs, added to the financial burden.

The Complexity of Defect Costs


the complexity of defect costs

Throughout all these diverse examples, one thing is absolutely clear i.e., the cost of a software defect is a multifaceted and interconnected web of consequences. From the immediate financial hits to the long-term damage to reputation, from the toll on an organization’s morale to the need for extensive legal and public relations efforts, defects can wreak havoc in unpredictable ways.

The complexities of these costs serve as an important reminder of the critical importance of rigorous testing and quality processes in the software development process. Identifying and addressing defects early can save organizations from the maze of trouble and consequences.

Here are a few lessons to take from the case studies & exploration of various costs associated with the defects:

  1. Invest in Testing: Rigorous testing and quality practices are not optional—they are essential. The cost of fixing defects after they’ve reached production can be exponentially higher. Checkout our open source tool to accelerate your testing effort.


  1. Consider the Human Element: Software defects don’t just impact systems; they impact people. Customer’s morale, trust, and satisfaction are intangible yet invaluable assets. Do join our free discord community to stay up to date with fellow professionals and be on top of your quality and testing game.


  1. Trust is Priceless: Once trust is shattered, the cost of rebuilding it can be exorbitant. Trust is a currency that can’t be quantified but holds immeasurable value.
  2. Prepare for the Unpredictable: Defects can manifest in unexpected ways and places. A proactive stance towards testing and quality is the best defense.

“Quality is never an accident;
it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skillful execution.”

John Ruskin

Like a hidden iceberg lurking beneath the surface of the sea, with the potential to sink even the mightiest of ships, defects exist in the software world.

Understanding and mitigating these costs should be at the forefront of every organization’s software strategy. As we navigate the ever-evolving digital landscape, let’s do so with a keen awareness of the hidden consequences that lie beneath the surface.

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